10 Surprising Scientific Inventions and Discoveries by Women

Cheryl Brite April 20th 2016 Technology
Men aren’t the only ones who can invent and discover things in the world. Women have made a significant impact in the world of invention and discovery throughout history. They have created inventions and discoveries that are still relevant today. Women were hardly recognized in the past for what they could contribute to the world. What an injustice? Here are women that should be acknowledged for their inventions and discoveries.
1. The Submarine Telescope - Sarah Mather
Sarah Mather gave us a view of the ocean floor when she patented the submarine telescope in 1845. If she hadn't patented this amazing invention, it would have never been acknowledged as hers. So before 1845 we didn’t even know the ocean had a floor. How amazing is that? People thought that the ocean went on for days. Without Mather's invention of the submarine telescope, we would have been in the dark about the floor of the ocean.
It was originally used for inspecting boats. The submarine used a lamp like device that was placed on the glass globe of the submarine, which sunk in the water. From their boats people could see the hull and other details of the boat. If boats needed repairing, the submarine telescope was used to identify the problems so they could get the necessary repairs to function properly. With its ability to float under the water and its ability to use light, this telescope would still be useful today. It may have accidently discovered the ocean floor, but we are forever grateful to know more about our oceans.
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2. The Windshield Wiper - Mary Anderson
Mary Anderson invented the windshield wipers in 1902. It figures that a woman would invent a practical accessory to keep away the elements from sticking to the windshield. We use it today on cars to wipe off snow, rain, and other debris. What would we do without this lifesaving function on our cars? Can you even imagine what it was like before the 1900's? Be very thankful for your windshield wipers.
In 1903 she was given a patent for this invention. Her invention came about in New York City when she saw drivers opening their car windows when it was raining to see the road. As a result she created this invention where a lever was used from the inside of the car to move the rubber blade on the outside of the car. The public wasn't so sure about this invention because it seemed to be a huge distraction for the driver. In 1916 it was used on most cars. She finally patented the idea in 1917.
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3. Organism Discovery - Nettie Stevens
In 1905 Nettie Stevens came across an interesting discovery through several of her studies and found out that the sex of an organism was directly linked to its chromosomes rather than its environment. Whether we’re a human male or female or any animal like a grasshopper, chicken, or bee, what lies deep within our bodies decides our fate and our environment is just an afterthought. Like most discoveries this one was met with some skepticism. What an amazing discovery? Imagine how controversial this idea was at the time. This idea paved the way for future scientists.
She was a geneticist and the first researcher to explain the chromosomal basis of sex. Stevens was acknowledged as one of the first women that contributed to science. To determine whether her discovery had any foundation, she used insects in her experiments. She found that the presence or the absence of the Y chromosome depends on the sex of the chromosome. Because of her research Stevens changed the fields of embryology and cytogenetics. Her discovery has no doubt influenced the world we live in when it comes to sex.
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4. Radioactivity - Marie Curie
Marie Curie discovered Radioactivity in 1910, which is ironic because it was the very thing that killed her in the end. How tragic? I think we’ve all learned a lesson here to never carry around test tubes of radiation in our pockets for extended periods of time. It's a real hazard. In this case no risk no reward. Her discovery is still relevant today.
This discovery opened the doors to how scientists approached matter and energy. Curie also had an influence in paving the way for the knowledge of medicine and finding cures for diseases. Curie studied the rays of radium in the 1890's. She studied compounds with uranium in them and found out that if there were a certain amount of uranium atoms that there were a certain intensity of radiation. This was how the discovery of radioactivity began for Curie. She had used radioactivity to save the lives of soldiers by using this element to destroy the the diseased tissue in patients.
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5. The Turn Signal Light - Florence Lawrence
Florence Lawrence invented the turn signal in 1914 and thank god she did or else we’d all be crashing into one another on the road. It makes you really think. How did people survive without the turn signal? Unfortunately she didn’t patent the idea so she didn’t receive credit for the invention. How awful is that? She invented this life changing device, and her name isn't even on it.
Before the turn signal, people would have to stick their hands out the car window and gesture with their hands. To signal left people had to put their arm straight out the window, to signal right people rested their had against the open window,pointing the hand to the sky, and to stop people had to face your arm downward towards the street. We still have to know these actions today to prepare for our driving test. In the past there was no relief from this until Lawrence came and changed the world of driving, forever. She came up with the first mechanical signaling arm as well as the brake signal. So we don't have to use our arms to signal and we can let people know when we're braking because of her.
6. Nuclear Fission - Lise Meitner
In the 1930’s Lise Meitner discovered Nuclear Fission while involved in her work in nuclear physics. It goes to show that great discoveries come in the unexpected ways. Nuclear Physics, these two words alone intimidate me but Nuclear Fission occurs when the atomic nuclei splits into two, which led the way to the atomic bomb. Nuclear Fission has clearly made an impact in the world. She led the way for future scientists. This was a big discovery in its time.
Her discovery was overlooked by the Noble committee, probably because she was a woman. The personal opinions of men overshadowed what a difference she made in the scientific community with her discovery of nuclear fission. She did receive "Woman of the Year" in 1946 by the National Press Club and other rewards. Otto Hahn had been credited with the discovery of nuclear fission and given the Nobel Peace Prize when Meitner was the one who made the discovery. She made a significant contribution to the world of science, and she couldn't even be recognized for her discovery because of her gender. Well she's being recognized now in this article.
7. Frequency-Hopping - Hedy Lamarr
How could an talented movie actress invent frequency-hopping? This is a case of beauty and brains, and she was so much more than an actress. When she became bored with this profession, she turned to her interest in applied science. Hedy Lamarr co-created this invention with George Antheil that involves the switching of frequencies during radio transmissions. She patented the invention with her husband’s last name in 1942. While this action doesn’t seem like she’s fully acknowledging her part, her invention led the way to Bluetooth and other technologies that we use today.
This discovery came to light during World War II when Lamarr was determined to help the war effort. She used frequency-hopping to stop the jamming of radio communication by the Axis. It was also used to guide a torpedo using the frequency-hopping technology, so the signal would not be intercepted. The discovery wasn't taken in until the 1960's by the navy. In 2014 she was recognized by her accomplishment when she was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. She was finally recognized for her invention and not for just being another pretty actress on the movie screen.
8. Lambda Bacteriophage - Esther Lederberg
In 1951 Esther Lederberg discovered Lambda Bacteriophage, a virus that infects bacteria. This virus impacted the medical world. It was something that needed to be acknowledged, so a potential cure could be made. As if bacteria weren’t threatening enough, a virus comes along to make it worse but the bacteria does look like it’s starring in vibrant, color film of horror. Although it seems harmless, it can do some real damage. We can't see it if we're not looking for it, and that's possibly the most frightening thing about this virus.
It is a rare virus, and its life cycle is complex. This virus contributed greatly to the invention of molecular biology. It originally came from E. coli. The Lambda is used in the creation of recombinant DNA in technology. The cycles within the virus help us understand the process of gene transcription. Lambda Bacteriophage was also used as a cloning vector, which is a piece of DNA take from a virus that can eventually be used for cloning purposes.
9. The DNA Double Helix - Rosalind Franklin
In the 1950’s Rosalind Franklin discovered the DNA Double Helix while she was working on X-ray diffraction images of DNA. Images really do lead to real life discoveries that can change the world. This discovery is still studied today by scientist. Because of the DNA Double Helix, the medical world has a better understanding of the human body. It wouldn't have this understanding without Franklin's discovery. We know what it is, and what it can do.
The DNA Double Helix, known as deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that is double stranded in the shape of a helix. Each individual strand contains sugar-phosphate backbone and other base chemicals attached in pairs. Adenine (A), thymine (T), cystosine (C), and guanine (G) are four parts that create the stairs. These stairs are instructions for the host cell. This DNA code is complex and gives information to the organic cell. It maybe complex in its structure, but its discovery happened by chance.
10. Pulsars - Jocelyn Bell Burnell
They are now known as the "lighthouses" of the universe. The pulsar gets its name from how their emissions look like they're pulsating in space. In 1967 Jocelyn Bell Burnell discovered these Pulsars, which are remnants of stars that become supernova. What an amazing thing to witness through a telescope or as an astronaut who is in the direct path of the Pulsar? It's one of the universe's most beautiful natural occurrences. The pictures online don't give this discovery justice.
Pulsars have a high magnetic element and move at great speeds. As you all ready know when a star dies, it becomes a supernova. This occurs when the outer layer of the star is blasted into space. The inner core of the star then contracts down with the help of gravity. The pressure is so much that takes away the bonds that keep atoms apart. In the end the star creates a blast of radiation that becomes a pulsar.

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50 Extraordinary Women You Won't Believe Actually Exist

Luke Chase May 25th 2016 Entertainment
It's likely that the women in your day to day life are pretty "normal" in appearance. So when you see someone whose appearance differs from what you expect it to be, it can be kind of a shock. The ladies in the following slideshow are definitely far from average. Some of these women spent thousands of dollars on plastic surgery, tattoos, or body piercings. Others are born with strange birth defects such as excessive facial hair, a gigantic butt or even an 8 inch tongue. See for yourself!
Lauren Williams: 4 Foot Long Legs
Lauren Williams has the longest-known legs in the United States, with her eye-catching limbs measuring an incredible 49 inches from hip to heel. Lauren's height and long-legged genes can be attributed to her family as her father, mother and twin sisters are all 6ft or taller. She has US size 11 feet (UK size 10), and revealed that she can find it tricky to buy clothes that fit. When modelling, single Lauren - who has worked on campaigns for global brands such as Nike - does everything from sports and fitness to high fashion and swimwear.
Having played volleyball in college, as well as being extremely active, Lauren also enjoys shooting sporty campaigns. As well as modelling, Lauren works as an educator at a children's museum in Houston and enjoys travelling. When out and about, her striking looks and long limbs mean she gets comments about her legs on a daily basis.
Pixee Fox: Dangerously Small Waist
Swedish born Pixee Fox had already spent more than $80,000 on plastic surgery attempting to sculpt the perfect hourglass figure. But now she has taken her obsession even further by having 6 of her lower ribs removed - so she can shrink her waist to a record-breaking 14 inches. Pixee, from Sweden, said: "People often come up to me and say, "don't take this the wrong way, but you look like a cartoon" - but for me that's a compliment, that's what I want to achieve.
With 6 of her lower ribs removed, Pixee's lower internal organs, including the liver, have lost some of their natural protection - but she isn't worried. She said: "Before if I was in a car crash I would normally break my ribs. If that happened now I'm probably going to break my spleen instead. In total she has had four rhinoplasties costing $14,000; four breast augmentations of 200cc, 525cc, 800cc and 1400cc costing $28,500; two rounds of liposuction at $5,000; two upper eyelid surgeries at $6,000; a labiaplasty costing $4,000; a Brazilian butt lift at $9,000 and cool-sculpting, cheek injections, and lip injections at about $12,000.
Bethany Hamilton: One Armed Pro Surfer
Bethany Meilani Hamilton-Dirks is an American professional surfer who survived a 2003 shark attack in which her left arm was bitten off, but ultimately returned to-and was victorious in-professional surfing. On October 31, 2003 Hamilton, aged 13 at the time, went for a morning surf along Tunnels Beach, Kauai, with best friend Alana Blanchard, Alana's father, Holt, and brother Byron. Around 7:30 a.m., with numerous turtles in the area, she was lying on her surfboard with her left arm dangling in the water, when a 14-foot tiger shark attacked her, severing her left arm just below the shoulder.
Despite the trauma of the incident, Hamilton was determined to return to surfing. Three weeks after the incident, she returned to her board. Initially, she adopted a custom-made board that was longer and slightly thicker than standard and had a handle for her right arm, making it easier to paddle, and she learned to kick more to make up for the loss of her left arm. After teaching herself to surf with one arm, on January 10, 2004, she entered a major competition. She now uses standard competitive performance short-boards. The broken surfboard that Hamilton was riding during the attack is on display at the California Surf Museum
Mayra Hills: World's Largest Fake Breasts
Mayra Hills - also known as Beshine - measures at 59-28-36 and says she's the proud owner of the world's largest fake breasts. And it's not hard to believe her claim to fame, considering each of her breasts have 10,000 cc of saline implants and weigh 20 pounds a piece! As you can imagine, it's difficult for Beshine, who wears a size 32Z bra, to find clothes that fit, so the German-born woman has a lot of her items custom-made.
But bra shopping isn't her only woe. She can no longer tie her own shoes and has run into trouble when she's knocked things over with her chest - but it appears she's satisfied with her body, troubles and all. "Some people maybe think the sheer size of my t-ts bring too many handicaps in my everyday life, but hey, having big boob problems is amazing," she wrote on her blog.
Anastasiya Shpagina: Real Life Anime Girl
It's official, this real-life anime trend has gotten completely out of hand. Hardly a day goes by that we don't stumble upon some photos of girls going to any lengths in order to look like real live anime characters. Today's example, Anastasiya Shpagina, an Ukrainian girl who has even taken a Japanese name - Fukkacumi. 19-year-old Anastasiya (Nastya) Shpagina has been called "the new Barbie" by national news outlets, but she later revealed she's striving to become a real-life Japanese anime character, not a doll. She even posted "I am not like a doll, a doll is like me."
Apparently, Nastya has been passionate about makeup even as a young child, always experimenting with it in the mirror. Over time she also developed a thing for Japanese cartoons and it was only a matter of time before she started using her make-up artist skills to transform herself into a real-life anime girl. But just putting on makeup wasn't enough to attain that coveted look, so she decided to lose weight in order to seem more genuine. At 1.58-meters-tall, Anastasiya weighs just 39 kilos and is trying to lose one more in order to look just right.
Chanel Tapper: World's Longest Tongue
The longest female tongue measures 9.75 cm (3.8 in) from the tip to the middle of lip and was achieved by Chanel Tappe on 29 September 2010. Chanel, from Houston, US, shot to fame aged 13 when she was spotted sticking out her monster tongue in a YouTube video. In September Guinness invited Chanel to Los Angeles where they measured her tongue and she narrowly beat two other female contenders to the record.
She said: "I have always been silly and goofy. I love sticking my tongue out at people. I started doing that back in school. I've never had a problem with having a long tongue, it's just fun." Chanel now has set her sights set on Hollywood after finishing her studies. She said: "I'd love to be in a movie. I'm certainly pretty dramatic, so I think I could have the acting gift. "Really, I'd love to meet Adam Sandler, he's my favorite."
Sarah Massey: World's Largest Butt
Sarah Massey would be just another 33-year-old mother-of-two from Chicago - if it weren't for the fact that she also happens to have the world's biggest butt. Though not officially recognized by the prudes at Guinness, Massey's massive 7-foot wide keister requires a pair of 10XL trousers that would comfortably fit all of the Kardashian sisters combined.
Massey insists the condition that resulted in her museum-sized bubble butt is hereditary - "there's nothing I can do about it," she says - but that her love of ice cream certainly contributed to its maintenance. Massey would still like to lose some weight, but says she now has a new-found appreciation for her natural assets, and fervently defends them against anyone who calls them fake. "Some people can't believe one person can have this much butt," she told Barcroft. "Because I've got a relatively small frame on top they say, 'that can't be real.' I carry this weight with me all the time, everywhere I go, it's definitely not fake. Big booties are just in my blood."
Zlata: Extreme Flexibility
Russian-born former gymnast Zlata, 29, posed in leather and lingerie to adopt a series of poses that seem to defy every law of biology. Zlata, who now lives in Germany, is able to create astounding shapes with her body and is so flexible she can cram herself into a 50cm square box. One of her favorite acts is to bend backwards at a 90 degree angle, so the back half of her hands touch her feet and she can also peer through her own legs from behind.
Zlata's gift of flexibility was discovered when she was four years old and by six she was training as a contortionist at a circus school. She has a rare condition which makes all her tendons extremely pliable, which helps in her profession. The former gymnast now spends most of her day working out and training for shows around the world. In 2011 she set the Guinness World Record for the most beer bottles opened in a minute using only your feet.
Kim Goodman: Eyeball Protrusion
Kim Goodman is a woman who is able to pop her eyes out of her eye sockets by 12 millimeters (0.47 inches). She holds the world record for the farthest eyeball protrusion. She lives in Chicago, Illinois. She discovered her eyeball popping talent one day when she was hit on the head with a hockey mask. Her eyeballs popped out much further than usual and ever since that day she could pop them out on cue, as well as when she yawns.
She has appeared on the Late Show with David Letterman. In 2004, Goodman was included by Guinness World Records in their 50th anniversary list of top ten "feats" of all time. Kim originally had the record for being able to extend her eye balls beyond her eye sockets by 10mm. This was matched a few years by a new contender, but when Kim was re-measured she found she could now reach 12mm - breaking her own record and keeping the title.
Natalia Partyka: One Armed Table Tennis Champ
Natalia Partyka (born 27 July 1989) is a Polish table tennis player. Born without a right hand and forearm, she participates in competitions for able-bodied athletes as well as in competitions for athletes with disabilities. Partyka reached the last 32 of the London 2012 Olympic women's table tennis. Partyka began playing table tennis at the age of seven. She won her first international table tennis medal in 1999 at the disabled World Championships. At the age of 11, she competed at the 2000 Summer Paralympics in Sydney, becoming the world's youngest ever Paralympian. In 2004, she won a gold medal in the singles event and silver in the team event at the Athens Paralympics.
Partyka competed for Poland both the 2008 Summer Olympics and the 2008 Summer Paralympics in Beijing - one of only two athletes to do so, the other being Natalie du Toit in swimming. They were her third Paralympic Games, and her first Olympics. Competing in class 10 at the Beijing Paralympics, she won gold by defeating China's Fan Lei by three sets to nil. In 2008, she won a gold medal in the singles event and a silver in the team event at the Beijing Paralympics, repeating her Athens Paralympics result.
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